Primary Sources

  "Albert Einstein." Live Physics. Web. 30 Nov. 2010. <>.

            This picture of Einstein was used to represent an example of whether nature or nurture plays a role in intelligence.

Cacioppo, John T., and Gary G. Berntson. Essays in Social Neuroscience. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2004. Print.

            This collaboration of many scientists offers us insight of their psychology and how they feel about psychology. They discuss the things that have happened to them that affected their beliefs; beliefs such as that social factors are unimportant, and that your bilogy affects you the most. Regardless, these essays were brought together to discuss how the mind works.

Collins, W. Andrew, Eleanor E. Maccoby, Laurence Steinberg, E. Mavis Hetherington, and Marc H. Bornstein. "Contemporary Research on Parenting. The Case for Nature and Nurture."American Psychologist 55 (Feb 2002): 218-32. Print.This article begins by illustrating the history of the nature vs. nurture debate and its contributions to parenting. This source helped us by showing us how the parenting impacted by this debate affected child rearing and the behavior of these children as adults.

Colonia. Photograph. Web. 25 Nov. 2010. <>.

We used this picture to represent children living in a poor environment.


Devlin, Bernie. Intelligence, Genes, and Success: Scientists Respond To The Bell Curve. New York: Springer, 1997. Print.

            This book argues the relationship between genes and intelligence. Controversial for its time, this now offers insight into how the brain works, or a possibility of how it works. Nature vs. Nurture is evident in his book because it uncovers both sides of the story and defends both of the ideas while still support the idea of nature the most.

Galton, Francis. English Men of Science Their Nature and Nurture. London: Macmillan, 1874. Print.

            Francis Galton was one of the first scientists to publish a book about Nature vs. Nurture. These first published thoughts allowed us to discern the two separate ideas and piece them back together to create logical conclusions about the debate. It offered us insight into the matter and helped us understand the debate better.

"Hawaii's Most Wanted." Hawaii's Most Wanted Magazine-Online Edition-Home. Web. 30 Nov. 2010. <>.

            This picture was used to emphasize how criminals are now given an opportunity to plea on behalf of their biology, with the excuse “my genes made me do it.” Nature vs. Nurture is being taken into consideration during criminal trials, and background checks are made on the person’s genetics.

"Help! My 4-Year-Old Loves Guns |" Mom News, Health, Beauty, Fashion, Celebrity Moms, Baby Names and More | Web. 25 Nov. 2010. <>.

            This picture was used to represent nurture and how many parents approach and raise their children to get the “best result.”

"Macalester College." Macalester College: Private Liberal Arts College. Web. 22 Oct. 2010. <>.This is probably our most important source because it is written by Francis Galton, the psychologist who conceptualized the whole twin nature-nurture theory. This book helped us by introducing us to the origins and reasoning of the nature and nurture influence prospectives. It also provided plenty of material to further research and examine.

"Genes, Environment, and Criminal Behavior." Great Ideas in Personality--Theory and Research. Web. 15 Oct. 2010. <>.This credible report helped us by giving us insight into the research done on criminals, and the impact of both the topic and research has on the nature-nurture debate. It further aided us in viewing the generally agreed-upon stance that debaters have taken regarding what determines the criminality of a person. This, however, prompted us to do more research on the individual branches of this particular topic: natural and circumstantial influences.

Herrnstein, Richard J., and Charles A. Murray. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996. Print.

            This book gave another view of Nature vs. Nurture. It argued more for nurture, but still gave reasons why nature would be a possibility. It discusses different levels of intelligence from different classes and gave reasonable conclusions involving both nature and nurture. This book provided actual historical information and gave us some impact of this debate in the aspect of education.

Herschkowitz, Norbert, and Elinore Chapman. Herschkowitz. A Good Start In Life: Understanding Your Child's Brain and Behavior. Washington, D.C.: Dana/Joseph Henry, 2002. Print.

            The authors’ of this book cover the nature and nurture debate and how it affects a child. It offered us historical significance of just how far and with what level of respect this debate is treated with. Books are being written to discuss the effects of nature and nurture on a child, and parents buy them in order to raise their children better. This book gave us more reason to draw the conclusion that this debate has had an impact on society.

Moore, David Scott. The Dependent Gene: The Fallacy of Nature Vs. Nurture. New York:  Henry Holt, 2003. Print.This book analyzes the effects of the nature and nurture debate and speculates how the future will be affected by the studies conducted in the name of the debate. This helped us by giving us an idea on how to conclude our analyses in respect to the future of psychology. In addition to this, the book offered the results and references of experiments done with specific topics such as education. It proved to a reliable reference in our researching.

Plomin, Robert. Behavioral Genetics. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman, 2000. Print.Scott, Alwyn. Stairway to the Mind: The Controversial New Science of Consciousness. Berlin: Springer (Copernicus ), 1999. Print.

            Giving more support to the nature vs. nurture debate, this book continues the argument between the two ideas. It offers a different point of view on the debate by putting in a historical significance. Although not necessarily controversial, the book does touch on ideas most had not yet covered.

"Transsexualism: Nature vs. Nurture." A Phoenix Area Support Group for the Entire. <>.The author presents an article demanding that transsexualism be examined seriously if we are to understand it. This article helped us by showing us an investigation of transsexualism in respect to the nature-nurture debate. It was an insightful read that sparked discussion between us due to the intriguing evidence that lended support to both nature and nurture.

"Woodworking Toy Plans." Aschi's Woodworking Model Plans. Web. 25 Nov. 2010. <>.

            This picture represents nurturing your child with mentally stimulating toys in order to raise creativity.

Secondary Sources

  Cale, Randy. "Making Homework a Habit." Terrific Parenting Advice & Resources by Dr. Randy Cale. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. <>.

This index offers the advice of Dr. Randy Cale to parents about how to effectively raise their children. This primary source was extremely useful because it offered the standpoint of an actual psychologist on child-rearing on the nurture-side of the debate. This source was especially interesting because some of the content on the website sparked outrage in one of the team members.



Ceci, Stephen J., and Wendy M. Williams. The Nature-Nurture Debate: The Essential Readings. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1999. Print.This book was essentially a collection of reports and articles about the nature and nurture debate. This compilation helped us see every aspect of the debate in voluminous detail and gave us more sub-topics to research so we could better extend the scope of each argument. Such sub-topics included, but were not limited to, research on fetal influences on later development, the role of gender, and the process of IQ development.

"The Childhood Development Nature vs Nurture Debate Continues." Associated Content - Web. 22 Oct. 2010. <>.
This webpage helped us in the making of our project by introducing the viewpoint of nature and nurture combining to determine the psychological standing of an individual rather than one influence being dominant over the other. To an extent, it broadened the platform on which we analyzed the nature and nurture arguments.

Comparison, By. "Peer Pressure: Why Soldiers Fight and Why Most Fight Bravely." Online Magazine and Writers' Network. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. <>.

This article explains the origins and integration of peer pressure in the social groups of humans. The only part of this article that was used for the website was the paragraph that cited the British anthropologist. This was the second source that was used to construct the Peer Pressure section of the website.

Does a Criminal Gene Exist? | Socyberty." Socyberty | Society on the Web. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <>.

This webpage offers a single possible explanation to what determines the criminality of an individual. This source helped us because it gave us information on the argument of sex chromosome diseases affecting an individual. The levels of testosterone present in an individual helps supports the nature side of the debate.

Harris, Judith Rich. "The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out The Way They Do." Web. 01 Dec. 2010. <>.

This webpage offers a summary of a book and even lists points of interest in every page of the book. This source was helpful to the creation of the website because it contributed to the information and content on the website. It gave us really useful information about the issue of peer pressure in the nature-nurture debate on child-rearing and prompted us to use it in the website.

Johnson, Ryan D. "Homosexuality: Nature or Nurture." AllPsych Journal (2003). Web.

            This article heavily contributed to our knowledge of the significance this debate has had on the gay community and society’s acceptance of these people. It did not discriminate and it was not bias, instead it listed scientific facts and other reasonable support without leaning toward one side over the other. Because the source was unbiased, it allowed for us to make conclusions without fear of discrimination.

"Nature versus Nurture: Environment or Genetics." Biological Determinism L Genetic Determinism L Web. 22 Oct. 2010. <>.This web article gives a succinct background of the nature vs. nurture debate. This source helped by providing and explaining some of the complimentary theories that go hand-in-hand with the sides of the debate, such as the "Tabula Rasa" theory. Not only that but it told of the controversies spurred by the debate like the conclusions about obesity and homosexuality.

"Nature vs Nurture in Intelligence." Wilderdom - a Project in Natural Living & Transformation. Web. 27 Nov. 2010. <>.

            The debate became much clearer after reading this article and looking at the diagram they offered. It really put the whole debate into perspective and allowed us to talk about it with much knowledge. It contributed to our website by providing us with more information with which to make logical conclusions on.

Nicolle, Caitlyn. "What Makes A Criminal: Nature Or Nurture?" Diet Articles. Web. 18 Nov. 2010. <>.

            This article offered supporting facts for both sides of the debate. It touched base with the importance of such information in regards to verdicts in court cases. Even though there is much evidence supporting either side of the debate, no real conclusion can be made.

"The Nurture Assumption: Evolutionary Psychology vs. Social Constructionism « NZ Conservative." NZ Conservative. Web. 19 Nov. 2010. <>.

This webpage argues that the primary factor in the nurture side of the nature vs. nurture debate is parental influence. This source helped us by explaining several points that prove that parental influence does not affect the personality of a child. Seeing that this source was biased, it prompted us to conduct more research into the nurture area of the debate.

"Parental Influence." Mesa Community College. Web. 30 Nov. 2010. <>.

Offering a different perspective on the topic, this chart listed different types of parenting styles. Instead of just giving us information, we used the chart to draw conclusions about the nurture idea and how it affects children. The fact that this chart exists shows just how powerful the nurture aspect of the debate is because of how many people will alter their parenting style to raise the “best child.”

Pittman, Karen. "Youth Today: On Nature versus Nurture, Success and Failure." Youth Today (2003). Web. 25 Nov. 2010.

            Offering her own opinion on the matter, the author of the article uses a lot of facts to back up her claim but also to justify the opposite side. She puts the debate into a societal significance and talks about how different classes and races are affected. We used this information in our website to emphasize the impact of the debate.

"Profile of Sir Francis Galton." SBC Psychology. Web. 22 Oct. 2010. <>.
This webpage details the background of the famous psychologist, Francis Galton. This helped us further understand the history and career of the man who inspired the modern idea of the nature-nurture debate. In addition to that, it details some of the other exploits of Galton in the field of psychology.

"XYY Genotype One Thought Linked to Criminality- Images." Online Magazine and Writers' Network. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. <>.

            Supporting the argument for nature (such as biological factors) creating criminals, this article gives reasons for criminal behavior. An extra Y chromosome causes more aggression, therefore increasing the chance for an affected male to act out and most likely break the law. This reasoning adds on to the debate between whether nature or nurture creates criminals, and has had many successful cases.